湖泊科学   2021, Vol. 33 Issue (1): 309-318.  DOI: 10.18307/2021.0126. 0

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Chen Minkun, Xu Xibao. Lake Poyang ecosystem services changes in the last 30 years. Journal of Lake Sciences, 2021, 33(1): 309-318. DOI: 10.18307/2021.0126.
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2020-02-24 收稿
2020-05-06 收修改稿

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(1: 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室, 南京 210008)
(2: 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)

Lake Poyang ecosystem services changes in the last 30 years
Chen Minkun1,2 , Xu Xibao1
(1: Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China)
(2: University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China)
Abstract: As the largest freshwater lake in China, Lake Poyang plays a vital role in maintaining regional ecological security and ecological balance. Due to natural changes and human activities, the hydrology and hydrodynamics of Lake Poyang changed, and the ecosystem of Lake Poyang was seriously threatened, which directly led to the degradation of ecosystem services. In order to capture ecosystem services changes of the Lake Poyang in the past 30 years, the existing literature and monitoring data were systematically collected and sorted to obtain data on Lake Poyang's water supply, fish supply, and water depuration services directly. Sediment transport method and Berger-Parker index were used to estimate sedimentation control and biodiversity protection services. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) method was applied to explore the temporal change of the trade-off relationships of Lake Poyang from 1992 to 2014. The results show that: (1) Fish supply and water depuration services continued to decline. Water supply and sedimentation control services recovered gradually in the 2010s. (2) The biodiversity of winter migratory birds and fish biodiversity increased slightly, characterised by the increased species and number of winter migratory birds and the fish population composition. (3) The biodiversity of phytoplankton and benthic animals increased, and the biodiversity of zooplankton decreased. (4) All the ecosystem service pairs had high trade-off relationships, and water depuration service always had a relatively higher benefit than other services.
Keywords: Lake ecosystem services    change characteristics    trade-off relationships    Lake Poyang

1 数据与方法 1.1 指标选取与数据搜集

1.2 研究方法 1.2.1 泥沙淤积量计算

 $S = {W_{\rm{i}}} - {W_{\rm{o}}}$ (1)

1.2.2 生物多样性计算

 $d = {N_{{\rm{max}}}}/N$ (2)

1.2.3 权衡分析

 ${B_{\rm{A}}} = \frac{{{A_{{\rm{OBS}}}} - {A_{{\rm{Min}}}}}}{{{A_{{\rm{Max}}}} - {A_{{\rm{Min}}}}}}$ (3)

RMSD公式为：

 $RMSD = \sqrt {\frac{1}{{n - 1}}\mathop \sum \limits_{i = 1}^n {{\left( {E{S_i} - \overline {ES} } \right)}^2}}$ (4)

2 结果分析 2.1 供给服务 2.1.1 水资源供给

 图 1 水资源供给服务变化 Fig.1 Changes in water supply service
 图 2 星子站枯水时间 Fig.2 Dry days of Xingzi Station
2.1.2 渔业资源供给

 图 3 渔业资源供给服务变化 Fig.3 Changes in fish supply service
2.2 调节服务 2.2.1 水环境净化

 图 4 水环境净化服务变化 Fig.4 Changes in water depuration service
2.2.2 泥沙淤积调控

 图 5 泥沙淤积调控服务变化 Fig.5 Changes in sedimentation control service
2.3 生物多样性维持服务 2.3.1 冬候鸟、鱼类

 图 6 冬候鸟、鱼类生物多样性变化 Fig.6 Changes in winter migratory birds and fish biodiversity
2.3.2 水生动植物

2.4 生态系统服务关系

 图 7 生态系统服务权衡度(RMSD值)(A为渔业资源供给服务，B为水资源供给服务，C为水环境净化服务，D为泥沙淤积调控服务，A-B表示渔业资源供给与水资源供给服务的权衡，以此类推) Fig.7 Trade-offs(RMSD values) of ecosystem services (The capital letters (A-D) represents fish supply, water supply, water depuration, sedimentation control and biodiversity protection, respectively. A-B represents the trade-off between fish supply service and water supply service, and so on)

 图 8 生态系统服务对散点分布图(以标准化后的生态系统服务值作为横纵坐标轴(黑色虚线)，红色虚线为1 :1线.一对生态系统服务的坐标点到1:1线的距离越远，RMSD值越大.坐标点与1:1线的相对位置代表在该条件下某种生态系统服务更有利，该服务为相对收益方) Fig.8 Scatter plot matrices of paired ecosystem services (ESs) (Use the standardized ES value as the horizontal and vertical axis (black dotted line), and red dash lines are 1 :1 lines. The farther the distance from the coordinate of a pair of ESs to the 1 :1 line, the larger the RMSD value is. In addition, the relative position of the data point to the 1 :1 line indicates which ES is more beneficial at the given condition, and the service is a relative beneficiary)
3 讨论 3.1 生态系统服务变化影响因素

 图 9 冬候鸟种类和数量变化 Fig.9 Changes in species and population of winter migratory bird
 图 10 鱼类种群构成变化 Fig.10 Changes in population composition of fish
3.2 不确定性分析

1) 研究数据的不确定性.首先，由于本文采用的数据来源多样，包括政府部门统计数据和相关研究成果，数据的标准和采样点等均存在一定的差异，导致数据本身可能存在一定的误差.其次，浮游植物、浮游动物数据不连续，缺乏2000s数据，导致其趋势分析可能存在误差.再次，部分指标观测时间较短，例如缺乏1998年前的冬候鸟数据，而不同时间尺度下的变化趋势存在差异，有待进一步搜集和监测相关数据，为更长时间尺度的分析奠定数据基础.

2) 指标的不确定性.受数据限制，水资源供给服务采用蓄水量为指标，得到的供水量并不是完全可为人类所用的，为生态系统中间服务.此外，天然渔业丰富度易受洪水干扰，鄱阳湖外的鱼类进入湖中，可能影响其准确性.后期研究在可以获得大规模、长时序的观测数据时，统一采用最终服务指标进行评估，并使用相适应的评估模型排除外界干扰，以更准确地评估多因素综合作用下鄱阳湖生态系统服务的变化趋势和特征.

4 结论

5 参考文献