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引用本文:庄德辉.酸雨对水生态系统中一些生物的影响.湖泊科学,1993,5(1):85-91. DOI:10.18307/1993.0112
Zhuang Dehui.Effects of acid rain on organisms in aquatic ecosystem. J. Lake Sci.1993,5(1):85-91. DOI:10.18307/1993.0112
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酸雨对水生态系统中一些生物的影响
庄德辉
中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072
摘要:
本文综述酸雨对水生态系统中各营养级生物的影响。介绍酸雨引起水体酸化和水体的缓冲能力,阐述不同营养级水生生物和所处不同发育阶段对低pH的敏感性差异。还讨论了由于遗传和适应引起生物对低pH的耐受性差异。酸化水体生物群落的重要特征是,生物种类数减少,多样性降低,生物量减少和食物链遭破坏。酸性pH对水生生物的毒作用方式包括气体交换受阻、体盐调节紊乱、酸碱平衡失调,以及与金属的联合作用等.最后还对若干问题作了扼要讨论,并提出建议。
关键词:  酸雨  酸性pH  水生态系统  水生生物群落
DOI:10.18307/1993.0112
分类号:
基金项目:
Effects of acid rain on organisms in aquatic ecosystem
Zhuang Dehui
Institute of Hydrobiology, Academia Sinica, Wuhan 430072
Abstract:
The water bodies acidification of different type of water bodies caused by acid rain and the buffer capacity are introduced and the effects of acid rain on some organisms at various trophic levels in aquatic ecosystem are reviewed. The sensitivity differences to low pH among some aquatic organisms and different developmental stages are summarized. Also, the tolerance variation of organisms to low pH owing to heredity and adaptability is described. The key characteristics of aquatic communities in acidified water are decreased species number9reduced diversity, lessened biomass and destroyed food chain. The toxic effect of low pH on aquatic life include inhibition of gas exchange, disorder of body salt adjustment, imbalance of acidity and alkalinity, and the combined effects with metals. Several problems are briefly discussed and some sugestions are put forward.
Key words:  Acid rain  acidic pH  aquatic ecosystem  aquatic community
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