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引用本文:张晓阳,蔡述明,孙顺才.全新世以来洞庭湖的演变.湖泊科学,1994,6(1):13-21. DOI:10.18307/1994.0102
Zhang Xiaoyang,Cai Shuming,Sun Shuncai.Evolution of Dongting Lake since holocene. J. Lake Sci.1994,6(1):13-21. DOI:10.18307/1994.0102
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全新世以来洞庭湖的演变
张晓阳1, 蔡述明1, 孙顺才2
1.中国科学院侧量与地球物理研究所, 武汉430077;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京210008
摘要:
本文根据全新世沉积物的岩性、岩相特征和文化遗址的时空分布,结合孢粉资料与历史文献记载,揭示了全新世以来洞庭湖演变的六个阶段:(1)晚更新世末至全新世初为河湖切割平原;(2)中全新世早、中期(8000-5000a B.P.)是湖泊扩展时期;(3)中全新世晚期(5000-3000 a B.P.)四水复合三角洲发育,湖沼洼地零星分布;(4)商周至秦汉(3000-1700 a B.P.)四水分流间洼地湖泊和沼泽广布,汛期河湖水体相连;(5)魏晋至19世纪中叶,洞庭湖逐渐发展至鼎盛阶段;(6)19世纪中叶至今,三角洲迅速推进,湖泊逐渐萎缩。研究认为这种发育演化过程与区域性气候变化、人类活动直接相关。
关键词:  洞庭湖  全新世  湖泊演变
DOI:10.18307/1994.0102
分类号:
基金项目:
Evolution of Dongting Lake since holocene
Zhang Xiaoyang1, Cai Shuming1, Sun Shuncai2
1.Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Acodemy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077;2.Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Aoedemy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
Abstract:
Dongting Lake, situated in the south of the middle reaches of the Changjiang River, is the second largest freshwater lake in China.According to the properties of sediments in Holocene and ancient cultural relics in various periods, as well as pollen data and historical records, the evolution of Dongting Lake can be divided into six stages. From later Pleistocene to early Holocene, Dongting Lake area was an alluvial plain with several small lakes and incised rivers since the level of the Changjiang River was 20-40 m lower than that of the present.During 8000-5000 a B.P., with the rise of the water level in the Changjiang River resulted from high sea level, as well as Wcirm palaeoclimate and plentiful rainfall, the water of four inlet rivers was jammed into this area to turn Dongting Lake into a large lake,an area starting from the Yuanjiang River mouth to Yueyang with a width trf 17-33 km.During 5000-3000 a B.P., the former large lake was divided by the fouMiver compound delta into several small lakes auid swamps due to dry palaeoclimate.During 3000-1700 a B.P., more than five large lakes and many swamps were formed in the lowland.From 1700 a B.P.to the 19th century, with the formation of Taiping Breach and Ouchi Breach relevant to the burst bank of the Changjiang River, and plentiful precipitation, Dongting Lake reached its largest area of 6000 km2.Beginning from the middle of the 19th century, as 0.984×108m3/a of silts carried in by the Changjiang River and four inlet rivers and a large-scaled reclaimed land from lake, Dongting Lake decreased rapidly to 2691 km2 in the 1980s.
Key words:  Dongting Lake  lake evolution  Holocene
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