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引用本文:杨富亿.三江平原沼泽地主养鲤鱼塘能量转换效率研究.湖泊科学,1995,7(3):263-270. DOI:10.18307/1995.0309
Yang Fuyi.Energy conversion efficiency of ponds cultured mainly with common carp in the marshland of the Sanjiang Plain. J. Lake Sci.1995,7(3):263-270. DOI:10.18307/1995.0309
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三江平原沼泽地主养鲤鱼塘能量转换效率研究
杨富亿
中国科学院长春地理研究所, 长春 130021
摘要:
对1988~1992年三江平原沼泽地泥炭池主养鲤鱼生态系统的能量转换效率进行了研究分析。结果表明,一个生长期浮游植物毛初级生产力对太阳辐射能的转换效率为0.204~0.308%;鲢鳙净产量对浮游植物净产量的转换效率为1.195~4.815%;太阳能转换为鱼类总净产量的生态学效率为0.067~0.123%。总辅助能、总生物能和饲料辅助能转换为鱼类总净产量的效率分别为8.91~14.05%、10.96~17.20%和11.06~17.57%.在2500kg/hm2、3500kg/hm2及5000kg/hm2三个净产量级型池塘中,以5000kg/hm2产量级的能量转换效率为最佳型。
关键词:  三江平原  沼泽地  鲤鱼  池塘生态系统  能量转换效率
DOI:10.18307/1995.0309
分类号:
基金项目:"七五"科技攻关项目
Energy conversion efficiency of ponds cultured mainly with common carp in the marshland of the Sanjiang Plain
Yang Fuyi
Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Scinces, Changchun 130021
Abstract:
The energy conversion efficiency of solar radiation and subsidies energy on ponds ecosystem cultured mainly with common carp in the marshland of the Sanjiang Plain during 1988~1992 was analyzed. The results showed that during the growing season, the net phytoplankton production in energy was 56.534GJ/hm2, 54.9 15GJ/hm2 and 51.717GJ/hm2 respectively in common carp ponds with net fish yields of 2500 kg/hm2, 3500 kg/hmz and 5000 kg/hm2. In the aforementioned ponds, corresponding with three net fish yields, productions in energy of zooplankton, zoobenthos and plankton were IB. 148 GJ/hm2, 16.343 GJ/hm2 and 12.966GJ/hm2 of zooplankton, 0.105GJ/hm2t 0.090 Gj/hmm2 and 0.096GJ/hm2 of zoobenthos, 17.367 GJ/hm2, 15.716 GJ/hm2 and 14.290 GJ/hm2 of plankton respectively, while the productions in energy were 437.67 GJ/hm2, 413.26 GJ/hm2 and 33-1.98 GJ/hm2 of suspended detritus, 196.50 GJ/hm2, 199.31 GJ/hm2 and 191.42 GJ/hm2 of deposition respectively.The annual input of solar radiation was 25670~26440 GJ/hm2. The efficiency of converting solar radiation to gross primary productivity ranged from 0.204~0.308%, and of converting net phytoplankton production to net yield of silver carp and big-head 1.195~4.815%, which showed that the ecological efficiency of converting solar radiation to total net yield of fish was 0.067~0.123%. The primary productions of the experiment ponds in the Sanjiang Plain were lower than those of other kinds of fish culture pattern in the south, because the solar radiation converses less efficiently in the marshland area. The effective nitrogen was the main restrictive factor of primary productivity on peat ponds ecosystem cultured mainly with common carp. The conversion efficiencies of subsidies energy input and output in the ponds and their relations with pond conditions, fish yield, feed structures and the administration measures were further given. The results showed that the annual input of subsidies energy was 180~260G J/hm2, the energy conversion efficiencies of total subsidies energy (bioenergy and industrial energy), total bioenergy (feed energy and fingerlings energy) and feed energy converted into net production of fish were 8.91~14.05%, 10.96~1 7.20% and 11.06~17.57% respectively. The fish productivity, feed conversion efficiency and feed protein conversion efficiency were 1.795~3.807 M J/hm2, 30.03~46.09% and 15.01~27.80%, The energy conversion efficiency of the ponds was 14.5%. The optimum fish production for the ponds cultured mainly with common carp was 5760 kg/hm2, with a corresponding fish productivity of 3.807 MJ/hm2, feed conversion efficiency of 46.09% and feed protein conversion efficiency of 27.80%, which were higher than those of other kinds of fish culture pattern. The energy cost (equal to the input energy divided by the fish yield) was 47.95GJ per ton fish, which was also lower than that of other kinds of fish culture pattern. Considering three different net production levels of 2500 kg/hm2, 3500kg/hm2 and 5000kg/hm2, the net production of 5000kg/hm2 is an optimal one. In the process of total energy flow of fish production, the solar energy accounted for a mere 17.8%, while the subsides energy for 82.2%.
Key words:  Sanjiang Plain  marshland  common carp  pond ecosystem  energy conversion efficiency
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