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引用本文:姜乃森,傅玲燕.中国的水库泥沙淤积问题.湖泊科学,1997,9(1):1-8. DOI:10.18307/1997.0101
Jiang Naisen,Fu Lingyan.Problems of reservoir sedimentation in China. J. Lake Sci.1997,9(1):1-8. DOI:10.18307/1997.0101
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中国的水库泥沙淤积问题
姜乃森, 傅玲燕
中国水利水电科学研究院泥沙研究所, 北京 100044
摘要:
由于我国有许多河流是含沙最高、输沙量大的多泥沙河流,水库泥沙淤积问题异常严重.主要表现在:淤积数量大,淤积速率快.据统计,截止到1981年底全国水库总淤积量达115×108 m3.占统计水库总库容的14.2%.年平均库容损失率达2.3%,高于世界各国.水库的严重淤积,不仅影响水库兴利效益的发挥,严重威胁水库的使用寿命,而且还造成一系列在进行水库规划时未曾充分估计到的环境问题.本文重点从河流水文泥沙特性、我国水库淤积问题的严重性、水库淤积引起的问题及水库防淤减淤措施等4个方面作一较全面的分析和探讨.
关键词:  水库淤积  多沙河流  蓄清排浑  防淤减淤措施
DOI:10.18307/1997.0101
分类号:
基金项目:
Problems of reservoir sedimentation in China
Jiang Naisen, Fu Lingyan
China Imtilulc of Water Resources and Hyihcxdcctric Panver Rcsecuch, Beijing 100044
Abstract:
There are many heavily sediment-ladden rivers in China, with high sediment concentration and a large quantity of sediment load. The reservoir sedimentation problems in those rivers are so serious that the amount of sediment deposited in the reservoir is great and the rate of sedimentation is accelerated. According to the statistics, up to the end of 1981? a total amount of 11.5×1010 m3 of sediments were approximately accumulated in the reservoirs, and 14.2% of the design capacity was lost. The average annual loss in capacity for storage reservoirs reaches 2.3 percent, the highest in the world. Silting of impounding lakes not only has an effect on the benefits of the reservoirs and seriously threatens the life of reservoirs, but also entails many environmental problems not fully anticipated at the time of planning of the reservoir, which calls for the Chinese scientific-technical personnol to pay high attention to and make great efforts in research on the methods of minimizing sediment deposition. In this paper, the situalion of rcservior deposition in China will be described. The main content is as follows:1) the characteristics of hydrology and sediment of rivers; 2) the seriousness of reservoir sedimentation in China; 3) problems caused by reservoir deposition; 4) the methods of minimizing sediment deposition etc.
Key words:  Reservoir sedimentation  rivers with heavy sediment load  impounding clear water and releasing muddy water  measure of mininizing sediment deposition
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