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引用本文:韩博平.中国水库生态学研究的回顾与展望.湖泊科学,2010,22(2):151-160. DOI:10.18307/2010.0201
HAN Boping.Reservoir ecology and limnology in China:a retrospective comment. J. Lake Sci.2010,22(2):151-160. DOI:10.18307/2010.0201
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中国水库生态学研究的回顾与展望
韩博平
作者单位
韩博平 暨南大学水生生物研究所, 广州 510632
热带亚热带水生态工程教育部工程研究中心, 广州 510632 
摘要:
水库是通过人工筑坝形成的水体,其早期功能主要是防洪、发电、灌溉和航运等,但随着全球水资源供需矛盾的加剧,水库供水成为缓解供水压力的最主要途径.水坝是人类影响地球表面水体最重要的工程建筑,筑坝修建水库利用水资源对全球水环境系统产生了巨大的影响.中国是水资源短缺的国家,水库供水在国民经济发展中发挥着重要作用,大量水库的建成也对我国水环境系统产生了多方面的影响.刘建康先生在1955年发表了我国水库生态学研究的第-篇论文,揭开了我国水库生态学研究的序幕.我国水库生态学大致分为三个阶段,1955-1975年的起步阶段、1976-2000年以水库渔业生产为目标的研究阶段和2001年至今以水库水质管理为目标的研究阶段.当前,水质、水质模拟、富营养化、环境容量和生态调度等已成水库生态学研究中的关键词.我国水库研究主要集中在珠江流域和长江流域,以大型供水水库为对象.在水利学科领域,有大量有关水库水文、水动力学和调度的研究论文,这些工作还未能被以生物和化学为研究基础的生态或环境科学的学者所重视.多数以水库为对象的生态学研究还没有很好地体现水库作为人工湖泊的特殊性.近10年来,中国水库生态学经历了从任务导向到学科导向的生态学研究过渡,有不断增加学科交流的趋势.有理由相信,作为水库大国,中国水库生态学和湖沼学今后将会有-很大的发展,并对我国淡水生态学和湖沼学作出重要的贡献.
关键词:  水库  生态学  渔业  水质管理  湖沼学
DOI:10.18307/2010.0201
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(U0733007)资助
Reservoir ecology and limnology in China:a retrospective comment
HAN Boping
Abstract:
Reservoirs are constructed by damming a river man impermeable site usually with a channeled river water supply. Atthe early historical period, the reservoirs were mainly built for flow or flooding control, power generation, irrigation and navigation.However, these reservoirs- have been used to store water to meet the increasing demand of freshwater supply. As one special type ofartificial structures, a huge mount of reservoirs were built so that they have largely modified water cycling system and its ecologicalfunctions in our planet.China is not rich in fresh water, especially water pollution leading to total limiting capacity of water supplyeven in the Yangtze River and Pearl River catchments. Water supply by reservoirs has strongly supported a rapid social and eco-nomic development in the last 30 years in the country. In 1955,Dr. Liu Jiankang published the first ecological paper of reservoirorganisms for fishery resource in Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, initiating the research of reservoir ecology or biological liamology in China. Historically, the reservoir ecology has developed over three distinct stages. From 1955 to 1975,it slowly and arduouslystarted to investigate aquatic organisms for fishery use. From 1976 to 2000, most reservoirs were intensively used for fish culture,the fish production nationally improved animal protein supply. However, water deterioration and degradation of ecological functionsresulted in decrease in fish production. Rapid increase in water supply finally leaded to appearance of the third stage highlightingmanagement of reservoir water quality since 2001.Water quality, eutrophication, environmental capacity and ecological regulationof hydrodynamics became key words in newly published literatures in the study of reservoir. Most publications of reservoirs focusedon large reservoirs for water supply in Yangtze River and Pearl River catchments. There have existed many researches of hydrologi-cal and hydrodynamics in the aspect of water resource, but not being widely shared and cited by reservoir ecologists yet. Many re-searches were still descriptive instead of experimental studies based on linmological hypotheses, but slowly changing. Regarding thehuge national demand in management of water quality and ecological protection,however, the prosperous future of reservoir ecologyand limnology can be expected in China.
Key words:  Reservoir  ecology  fishery  water quality management  limnology
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