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引用本文:濮培民,李裕红,张晋芳,马永兵,李正魁,成小英.用生态修复调控浮游植物种群局部控制富营养化——以贵州红枫湖水质生态修复工程为例.湖泊科学,2012,24(4):503-512. DOI:10.18307/2012.0401
PU Peimin,LI Yuhong,ZHANG Jinfang,MA Yongbing,LI Zhengkui,CHENG Xiaoying.Eutrophication control in local area through phytoplankton population regulation by eco-remediation:a case study on aqua-eco-remediation engineering in Lake Hongfeng, Guizhou Province. J. Lake Sci.2012,24(4):503-512. DOI:10.18307/2012.0401
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用生态修复调控浮游植物种群局部控制富营养化——以贵州红枫湖水质生态修复工程为例
濮培民1, 李裕红2, 张晋芳3, 马永兵3, 李正魁4, 成小英5
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008;2.泉州师范学院湿地研究所, 泉州 362000;3.贵阳市农业委员会, 贵阳 550081;4.南京大学环境学院污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京 210093;5.江南大学环境与土木工程学院, 无锡 214122
摘要:
利用物理生态工程在水深10 m左右,水位变幅7 m左右的贵阳红枫湖/水库(正常水位时57.2 km2)右二湾富营养水体进行局部(围隔水体面积1.33 hm2)生态修复.对工程前后和内外水体浮游植物的群落结构、丰度、生物量等进行比较,结果表明,当植物浮岛覆盖率超过1/5~1/3时(可视为阈值),物理生态工程可以调控浮游植物种群结构和丰度,浮游植物优势种群由生态修复前的微囊藻属、角甲藻属及同期外环境的蓝藻门蓝纤维藻属转变为硅藻门的直链藻属.工程内与工程外比较,种属数减少了29.4%,特别是减少了蓝藻中可能释放藻毒素的微囊藻、鱼腥藻等属,蓝藻丰度和生物量分别减少了55.5%和57.9%;而硅藻的种属数则增多120.0%,且其丰度和生物量分别增加了56.4%和60.3%.从藻类总体统计资料看,工程内与工程外比较,藻类丰度减少53.6%,生物量减少39.1%,透明度提高了数十厘米以上,稳定在120~220 cm.当工程区外浮游植物优势种群是蓝藻,暴发蓝藻水华,且可释放藻毒素的种属有多次检出时,工程区内仍然以硅藻为优势种,未曾检测出可释放藻毒素的种属,从而在红枫湖局部水体实现了水质改善和富营养化控制.在目前高污染负荷下恢复浅水湖泊沉水植被时,本项目发展的可全年镶嵌式种植包括香根草、杞柳等高杆植物在内的多种水面植物的浮岛可作为防浪削浪、遏制蓝藻、改善水质、提高透明度的先锋性措施,以保障局部水面植被覆盖面积超过上述阈值,成为保护沉水植物生长、遏制暴发蓝藻水华的可操作途径.
关键词:  生态修复  富营养化控制  浮游植物种群调控  物理生态工程  红枫湖
DOI:10.18307/2012.0401
分类号:
基金项目:贵阳市政府农业委员会项目"红枫湖水质生态修复技术示范试验";国家自然科学基金项目(30770391)联合资助
Eutrophication control in local area through phytoplankton population regulation by eco-remediation:a case study on aqua-eco-remediation engineering in Lake Hongfeng, Guizhou Province
PU Peimin1, LI Yuhong2, ZHANG Jinfang3, MA Yongbing3, LI Zhengkui4, CHENG Xiaoying5
1.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.Institute of Wetland, Quanzhou Normal College, Quanzhou 362000, P. R. China;3.Guiyang City Agriculture Committee, Guiyang 550081, P. R. China;4.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China;5.School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China
Abstract:
A physic-ecological engineering (PEEN) for aqua-eco-remediation was performed in a local area (enclosed water with surface area of 1.33 ha) with depth round 10 m and variation of water level of 7 m in Lake/Reservoir Hongfeng. Results showed that the construction, abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton may be regulated by PEEN, when the ratio of the sum area of floating islands with plant to the total enclosed area is above 1/5-1/3(as the threshold). The dominant phytoplankton population shifted from Cyanophyta (Microcystis), Pyrrophyta (Ceratium hirundinella) and Cyanophyta (Dactylococcopsis acicularis) in surrounding algae-type water to Bacillariophyta (Melosira) after the construction of engineering. Species of Cyanophyta in plant-type water were less than that of surroundings at 17.6%-29.4% (especially the species with microcystin, such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Aphanizomenon, were detected in surroundings algae-type water did not been detected in plant-type water); while the species of Bacillariophyta increased to 120.0% in comparison with that in the surroundings. The abundance and biomass of Cyanophyta in the plant-type area of the PEEN decreased by 55.5% and 57.9% in comparison with those in surroundings, respectively. Meanwhile, the abundance and biomass of Bacillariophyta in the plant-type area of the PEEN increased by 56.4% and 60.3% in comparison with those in surroundings, respectively. The total phytoplankton abundance and biomass decreased by 53.6% and 39.1%, respectively in comparison with those of the surroundings. All these facts benefited the increase of transparency in plant-type water, where the water quality improved obviously and the secchi depth is stably observed at 120-220 cm and higher than that in surrounding algae-type water in dozen centimeters. The engineering area appears as the "green island" in the algae bloom occupied surroundings frequently. The eutrophication in local area of Lake Hongfeng with surface area of 57.2 km2 at normal water level is controlled without algae bloom. The PEEN including floating eco-islands, which can be used for culturing various water surface plant, including aquatic plant, wetland plant, terrestrial plant (Vetiver Grass, salix integra linn., etc), for relieving high wind-driven wave, suppressing blue algae, improving water quality and transparency and other techniques is important for guaranteeing the remediation of submerged vegetation in shallow lakes and preventing algae bloom under severe environmental pressure at present.
Key words:  Ecological remediation  eutrophication control  phytoplankton population regulation  physic-ecological engineering  Lake Hongfeng
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