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引用本文:孙明波,谷孝鸿,曾庆飞,毛志刚,谷先坤.基于水声学方法的太湖鱼类空间分布和资源量评估.湖泊科学,2013,25(1):99-107. DOI:10.18307/2013.0113
SUN Mingbo,GU Xiaohong,ZENG Qingfei,MAO Zhigang,GU Xiankun.Assessment of fish spatial distribution and biomass in Lake Taihu using hydroacoustic method. J. Lake Sci.2013,25(1):99-107. DOI:10.18307/2013.0113
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基于水声学方法的太湖鱼类空间分布和资源量评估
孙明波1,2, 谷孝鸿1, 曾庆飞1, 毛志刚1,2, 谷先坤1,2
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
利用BioSonics DT-X科学回声探测仪(208 kHz)在太湖2011年开捕前的8月对东部和北部湖区的鱼类进行了走航式水声学调查,并结合地理信息系统(GIS)模型对调查湖区的鱼类大小组成、空间分布和资源量进行了评估.结果表明,调查湖区的鱼类平均目标强度(目标鱼类对声波的反射能力)为-51.85±0.02 dB,平均体长在6 cm左右,体长范围为2.35~89.33 cm,不同区域间的鱼类目标强度差异性显著,表明不同区域间鱼类大小存在差异,其中鱼类的最小平均目标强度(-53.94±0.10 dB)出现在洞庭东西山之间,最大平均目标强度(-50.27±0.14 dB)出现在光福湾.调查湖区的鱼类密度在0.43~3.90 ind./m3之间,采用地理信息系统(GIS)对调查湖区进行建模得到鱼类密度均值为2.27±0.57 ind./m3,不同区域间鱼类密度差异性显著,鱼类密度在敞水区较高.基于建模的栅格化数据评估调查湖区鱼类资源量约为5.3×109ind.,其中目标强度在-45 dB(体长约13 cm)以下的鱼类占98.49%.本文对水声学方法在大型浅水湖泊中的应用进行了初步探索,水声学方法可在一定程度上突破传统鱼类资源调查方法在较大空间尺度上的局限性,但在调查时易受风浪、水生植物、船速的影响.
关键词:  水声学  太湖  鱼类  大小组成  空间分布  资源量
DOI:10.18307/2013.0113
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAD25B06);环保部环保公益项目(2010467014);江苏省水产三项工程项目(PJ2011-55)联合资助
Assessment of fish spatial distribution and biomass in Lake Taihu using hydroacoustic method
SUN Mingbo1,2, GU Xiaohong1, ZENG Qingfei1, MAO Zhigang1,2, GU Xiankun1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.China
Abstract:
Before the fishing of Lake Taihu,a mobile hydroacoustic survey was performed in eastern and northern of Lake Taihu in August of 2011,with using BioSonics DT-X scientific echo-sounder (208 kHz).Combining Geographic Information System (GIS) model,then fish size component,spatial distribution and biomass are assessed.The results show that the mean target strength (acoustic reflectivity of target fish) in the surveying lake areas is-51.85 ± 0.02 dB and the mean length is about 6 cm,ranging from 2.35 to 89.33 cm.The fish target strength in different areas is significantly different,which means there is significant difference of fish size,with the minimum mean target strength (-53.94 ± 0.10 dB) in the middle of Dongshan Island and Xishan Island and the maximum mean target strength (-50.27 ± 0.14 dB) in Guangfu Bay.The mean fish density is 2.27 ± 0.57 ind./m3, ranging from 0.43 to 3.90 ind./m3 in all survey areas,where a high fish density occurred in open water zone.Based on the raster data gained from fish distribution GIS model,the total amount of fish mantissa biomass are estimated to be 5.3×109 ind.,in which the fish with target strength lower than-45 dB (length about 13 cm) is 98.49%.The present study provided a preliminary application of the hydroacoustic method and performed in big shallow lake for fish resources investigation.This can break through the limitations of the traditional investigation methods for fish resource assessment on large spatial scales,to a certain extent.The application is still influenced by stormy waves,aquatic plants and speed.
Key words:  Hydroacoustic  Lake Taihu  fish  size component  spatial distribution  biomass
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