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引用本文:邢鹏,胡万婷,吴瑜凡,吴庆龙.浅水湖泊湖泛(黑水团)中的微生物生态学研究进展.湖泊科学,2015,27(4):567-574. DOI:10.18307/2015.0402
XING Peng,HU Wangting,WU Yufan,WU Qinglong.Major progress in microbial ecology of hypoxia in the shallow eutrophic lakes. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(4):567-574. DOI:10.18307/2015.0402
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浅水湖泊湖泛(黑水团)中的微生物生态学研究进展
邢鹏1, 胡万婷1,2, 吴瑜凡3,4, 吴庆龙1
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210023;3.中国科学院微生物研究所, 北京 100101;4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
“湖泛”是指湖泊水体中(包括沉积物)富含大量藻源性(或草源性)的生物质,在微生物的分解作用下,大量消耗氧气,出现厌氧分解,微生物在还原条件下,促进许多“黑臭”物质的形成,进而影响水质和湖泊生态系统结构与功能乃至造成环境灾难.与湖泛发生时的环境特征(如低溶解氧,低pH,高有机质,高总磷、总氮)相对应的是其简化的食物网结构和特殊的微生物类群.本文将主要针对湖泛中的微生物群落及其在物质循环中的作用展开综述.研究显示湖泛水体中主要微生物类群,如真菌、细菌厚壁菌门的梭菌以及产甲烷古菌等,在有机质的快速分解和厌氧矿化过程中发挥着重要作用;沉积物中主要的微生物功能群,如硫酸盐还原细菌、铁还原细菌、甲烷厌氧氧化菌和反硝化细菌等,是湖泛致黑物质形成的关键.缺氧及厌氧条件下碳、硫和铁等元素生物地球化学过程的相互关联以及多种微生物之间形成的互营共生可能是湖泛过程中功能微生物的重要特征.湖泛中微生物功能的进一步研究,亟需借鉴海洋低氧区及深海沉积物的经验,引用先进研究手段,提出可靠的生物地球化学证据.浅水湖泊湖泛(黑水团)中的微生物生态学探索将有助于从机理上揭示湖泛黑臭的成因.
关键词:  湖泛  微生物  功能  物质循环      互养共栖
DOI:10.18307/2015.0402
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31370508)、中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所“一三五”战略发展规划项目(NIGLAS2012135011)和湖泊与环境国家重点实验室开放基金项目(2012SKL005)联合资助.
Major progress in microbial ecology of hypoxia in the shallow eutrophic lakes
XING Peng1, HU Wangting1,2, WU Yufan3,4, WU Qinglong1
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China;2.School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, P.R.China;3.Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R.China;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.China
Abstract:
“Algae derived hypoxia” was caused by the rapid decomposition of massive algae biomass in the water column and the surface sediments, which consuming a large amount of dissolved oxygen. The oxygen depletion condition promotes the formation of substantial “black and odor” compounds, which then destroy the water quality and the structure and function of the lake ecosystem. Thus, “algae derived hypoxia” becomes one of the severe environmental secondary disasters caused by the frequent algae (mainly cyanobacteria) blooms, especially under high temperature. Corresponding to the environment characteristics of algae derived hypoxia, such as low dissolved oxygen, low pH, high organic matter, high total phosphorus, and high total nitrogen, is the simplified food web and the distinctive microbial communities in the lake ecosystem. This paper will focus on microbial communities and their diverse functions in the material circulation in the lake hypoxia. Based on the accumulative studies, the main microbial groups participating in the rapid breakdown of organic matters in the lake water are Clostridiales of Firmicute, Actinomycetales of Actinobacteria, methanogenic achaea etc., while in the anoxic sediments the main functional groups are sulfate reducing bacteria, iron reducing bacteria, anaerobic oxidation of methane bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, etc. The interconnected biogeochemical process of carbon, sulfur and iron elements as well as the syntrophy of various microorganisms is one important characteristics of these microbial functional groups. To compare with the researches in marine and the deep-sea hypoxia, there still needs a large amount of biogeochemical evidence for the microbial functions in the algae derived hypoxia, which relying on the introduction of new research methods. The exploration of microbial process will be helpful to reveal the mechanisms of the hypoxia formed in the shallow eutrophic lakes.
Key words:  Hypoxia  microorganism  function  material recycling  sulfur  carbon  syntrophy
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