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引用本文:王建国,于洪贤,马成学,姚允龙,汪义杰,马金龙,唐红亮,刘壮添,李丽.哈尔滨西泉眼水库夏季浮游植物群落结构动态特征.湖泊科学,2015,27(4):667-678. DOI:10.18307/2015.0415
WANG Jianguo,YU Hongxian,MA Chengxue,YAO Yunlong,WANG Yijie,MA Jinlong,TANG Hongliang,LIU Zhuangtian,LI Li.Ecological factors and phytoplankton community structure in Xiquanyan Reservoir,Harbin,P.R.China. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(4):667-678. DOI:10.18307/2015.0415
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哈尔滨西泉眼水库夏季浮游植物群落结构动态特征
王建国1, 于洪贤2, 马成学2, 姚允龙2, 汪义杰1, 马金龙1, 唐红亮1, 刘壮添1, 李丽1
1.珠江水利委员会珠江水利科学研究院, 广州 510611;2.东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040
摘要:
西泉眼水库作为哈尔滨市第二水源地,事关居民的饮用水安全,而浮游植物群落特征则是水库生态系统健康状况监测与评估的重要研究内容之一,能为水库生态系统健康提供科学支撑.本研究设置13个采样点,对库区和入库河流的浮游植物群落进行对比分析,采样时间为蓝藻水华易发的7月和8月.经镜检,共鉴定浮游植物7门169种,其中绿藻门最多,83种,占总种数的49.11%;硅藻门次之,47种,占总种数的27.81%;蓝藻门15种,占总种数的8.88%;隐藻门最少,仅有2种.浮游植物丰度在10.92×105~88.44×105cells/L之间,均值为51.6×105cells/L,以8月的3#采样点最高;生物量在2.61~22.44mg/L之间,均值为10.37mg/L,以8月的5#采样点最高.Shannon-Wiener指数在2.46~4.69之间,均值为3.33,以7月12#采样点最高.研究水域浮游植物优势种群以梅尼小环藻(Cyclotella meneghiniana)、肘状针杆藻(Synedra ulna)、阿氏席藻(Phormidium allorgei)和游丝藻(Planctonema sp.)为主.同时,典范对应分析表明:1)既将西泉眼水库库区和入库河流区分为两个相对独立的生态系统,又展现了同一生态系统内的月份变化趋势,说明西泉眼水库库区和入库河流区的浮游植物群落的时空分布异质性显著;2)库区内河流入库口处、库心和大坝口处浮游植物群落梯级差异显著,入库河流区水质明显优于库区;3)氨氮、硝态氮、总氮和总磷是影响浮游植物种群的主要驱动因子.研究认为,西泉眼水库水体总体上已处于中度富营养水平,并存在进一步富营养化的风险.建议水库管理部门建立水生态系统健康监测与评估预警体系,配套相应的水生态管理制度,并采取适宜的生态修复技术等生态治理措施,以确保哈尔滨市供水水源安全.
关键词:  浮游植物  群落结构  西泉眼水库  入库河流  生态因子  典范对应分析
DOI:10.18307/2015.0415
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(40830535)、城市化农村地区生活污水生态治理关键技术研究项目([2014]zx089)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2572014EA07-04)联合资助.
Ecological factors and phytoplankton community structure in Xiquanyan Reservoir,Harbin,P.R.China
WANG Jianguo1, YU Hongxian2, MA Chengxue2, YAO Yunlong2, WANG Yijie1, MA Jinlong1, TANG Hongliang1, LIU Zhuangtian1, LI Li1
1.Pearl River Hydraulic Research Institute, Guangzhou 510611, P.R.China;2.Wildlife Resource College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, P.R.China
Abstract:
Xiquanyan Reservoir, as the second water source place of Harbin, whose water ecosystem's state of health needs to be monitored effectively. In this study, the reservoir and upper rivers were sampled at 13 points, 9 of which were in the reservoir area and the others in the inflow-river area. In July and August of 2010, the phytoplankton were both qualitative and quantitative studied, along with the investigation on the water environmental factors. The results showed that, in total,7 phyla 169 species were identified, the majority of which were Chlorphyta(83 species), Bacillaroiphyta(47 species) and Cyanophyta(15 species). The others were listed as Euglenophyta(12 species), Chrysophyta(6 species), Pyrrophyta(4 species) and Cryptophyta(2 species). In summer, the phytoplankton abundance and biomass were 10.92×105-88.44×105 cells/L(the mean value is 51.6×105 cells/L) and 2.61-22.44mg/L(the mean value is 10.37mg/L), respectively. The Shannon-Wiener index was between 2.46-4.69 with the mean value of 3.33. Moreover, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra ulna, Phormidium allorgei and Planctonema sp. were the key dominant species in summer.Canonical correspondence analysis was used to analysis the phytoplankton community structure and their relationship with environmental factors. The results showed that, 1) The phytoplankton community in different sampling sites reflected significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity; 2) The estuary area, lake central district and the dam area were of significant difference, and the river water quality was significantly better than that in reservoir area; 3) Ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the main driving factors of phytoplankton populations. This study suggested that, the Xiquanyan Reservoir water body has been in moderate eutrophication level, and there is a risk of further eutrophication. Therefore, we proposed reservoir management departments to establish the system of ecosystem health monitoring, assessing and early-warning, to ensure the safety of Harbin water supply.
Key words:  Phytoplankton  community structure  Xiquanyan Reservoir  upper rivers  ecological factors  Canonical correspondence analysis
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