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引用本文:荆思佳,肖薇,王伟,刘强,张圳,胡诚,李旭辉.CLM4-LISSS模型对太湖多时间尺度水热通量模拟性能的评估.湖泊科学,2019,31(6):1698-1712. DOI:10.18307/2019.0611
JING Sijia,XIAO Wei,WANG Wei,LIU Qiang,ZHANG Zhen,HU Cheng,LEE Xuhui.Evaluation on the performance of CLM4-LISSS in simulating water and heat fluxes at multiple time scales over Lake Taihu. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(6):1698-1712. DOI:10.18307/2019.0611
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CLM4-LISSS模型对太湖多时间尺度水热通量模拟性能的评估
荆思佳1,2, 肖薇1,3, 王伟1,2, 刘强1, 张圳1, 胡诚1, 李旭辉1,4
1.南京信息工程大学气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室大气环境中心, 南京 210044;2.南京信息工程大学应用气象学院, 南京 210044;3.南京信息工程大学无锡研究院, 无锡 214105;4.耶鲁大学森林与环境研究学院, 纽黑文 CT 06511
摘要:
湖泊模型为数值天气预报模型提供热量通量、水汽通量和动量通量等下边界条件,但是不同时间尺度上湖泊水热通量变化的控制因子不同,因此有必要对湖泊模型进行多时间尺度上的离线评估.本文利用2012-2016年太湖中尺度通量网避风港站的气象资料和辐射数据驱动CLM4-LISSS模型(Community Land Model version 4-Lake,Ice,Snow and Sediment Simulator),并与涡度相关观测(Eddy Covariance,EC)结果进行对比,以年平均潜热通量模拟结果最佳为目标调整了模式中的消光系数、粗糙度长度方案,研究了该模型从半小时到年尺度上对湖表温度和水热通量的模拟性能.结果表明:模型对湖表温度的模拟在各时间尺度上均比较理想,但是模拟的日较差较小;从半小时到年尺度上潜热通量的变化趋势都能被很好地模拟出来,但在季节尺度上,潜热通量的模拟出现了秋冬季偏高、春夏季偏低的情况,季节变化模拟不准确.湖表温度和潜热通量模拟偏差的原因可能是消光系数的参数化方案.相比之下,感热通量尽管年际变化趋势的模拟值与观测值一致,但是从半小时到年尺度均被高估.特别地,冷锋过境期间,模型能较好地模拟出潜热通量和感热通量的变化趋势,但对于高风速条件下的感热通量模拟效果不佳.本文的研究结果能为湖泊模式的应用与发展提供有用信息.
关键词:  湖泊模型  表面热通量  多时间尺度评估  太湖
DOI:10.18307/2019.0611
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41475141,41505005,41575147)和教育部长江学者和创新团队发展计划项目PCSIRT联合资助.
Evaluation on the performance of CLM4-LISSS in simulating water and heat fluxes at multiple time scales over Lake Taihu
JING Sijia1,2, XIAO Wei1,3, WANG Wei1,2, LIU Qiang1, ZHANG Zhen1, HU Cheng1, LEE Xuhui1,4
1.Yale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, P. R. China;2.School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, P. R. China;3.NUIST-Wuxi Research Institute, Wuxi 214105, P. R. China;4.School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Abstract:
Lake model provides boundary conditions for numerical weather forecasting model in terms of sensible heat, water vapor and momentum flux. Because the mechanism controlling water vapor and heat fluxes at different temporal scales are different, it is necessary to make multiple time-scale offline evaluation for lake models. In this study, the CLM4-LISSS model (Community Land Model version 4-Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator) was driven by the meteorological and radiation measurement data at the Bifenggang site of the Taihu Eddy Flux Network from year 2012 to 2016, and the simulation results were compared with the measurement of eddy covariance system. The light extinction and roughness length parameterizations were optimized in pursuit of best simulation on annual mean latent heat flux. The lake surface temperature, water vapor and heat fluxes from half-hourly to annual time scales were used to evaluate model performance. The results indicated that simulated lake surface temperature agreed well with observation for all time scales, but the diurnal range was underestimated. The model was able to capture the half-hourly and annual variation trends of latent heat flux, but obvious biases occurred for monthly values with overestimation in fall and winter and underestimation in spring and summer. Parameterization of light extinction coefficient may attribute to the biases of lake surface temperature and latent heat flux. The agreement between simulated and observed sensible heat flux was not as good as that of latent heat flux, even though the trend of annual mean sensible heat flux can be captured by the model. The CLM4-LISSS model can capture the variability of latent and sensible heat flux under cold front condition, but obviously overestimated the latter one during strong wind period. This paper can provide valuable information to the application and development of lake models.
Key words:  Lake model  surface heat fluxes  evaluation at multiple time scales  Lake Taihu
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