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引用本文:朱立平,彭萍,张国庆,乔宝晋,刘翀,杨瑞敏,王君波.全球变化下青藏高原湖泊在地表水循环中的作用.湖泊科学,2020,32(3):597-608. DOI:10.18307/2020.0301
ZHU Liping,PENG Ping,ZHANG Guoqing,QIAO Baojin,LIU Chong,YANG Ruimin,WANG Junbo.The role of Tibetan Plateau lakes in surface water cycle under global changes. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(3):597-608. DOI:10.18307/2020.0301
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全球变化下青藏高原湖泊在地表水循环中的作用
朱立平1,2,3, 彭萍1, 张国庆1,2, 乔宝晋4, 刘翀1,3, 杨瑞敏5, 王君波1,2
1.中国科学院青藏高原研究所青藏高原环境与地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101;2.中国科学院青藏高原地球科学创新卓越中心, 北京 100101;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;4.郑州大学地球科学与技术学院, 郑州 450001;5.兰州大学资源环境学院, 兰州 730000
摘要:
青藏高原是地球上最重要的高海拔地区之一,对全球变化具有敏感响应.青藏高原作为"亚洲水塔",其地表水资源及其变化对高原本身及周边地区的经济社会发展具有重要的影响.然而,在气候变暖的情况下,构成高原地表水资源的各个组分,如冰川、湖泊、河流、降水等水体的相变及其转化却鲜为人知.湖泊是青藏高原地表水体相变和水循环的关键环节.湖泊面积、水位和水量对西风和印度季风的降水变化非常敏感,但湖泊面积和水量变化在不同区域和时段的响应也不尽相同.湖泊水温对气候变暖具有明显响应,湖泊水温和水下温跃层深度的变化能够对水-气的热量交换具有明显影响,从而影响了区域蒸发和降水等水循环过程.由于湖泊水量增加,高原中部色林错地区湖泊盐度自1970s以来普遍下降.根据60多个湖泊实地监测建立的遥感反演模型研究发现,2000-2019年湖泊透明度普遍升高.对不同补给类型的大湖水量平衡监测发现,影响湖泊变化的气象和水文要素具有较大差异.在目前的暖湿气候条件下,青藏高原的湖泊将会持续扩张.为了深入认识湖泊变化在青藏高原区域水循环和气候变化中的作用,需要全面了解湖泊水量赋存及连续的时间序列变化,需要深入了解湖泊理化参数变化及对湖泊-大气之间热量交换的影响,需要更多来自大湖流域的综合连续观测数据.
关键词:  青藏高原  湖泊面积和水量  水量平衡  理化参数  调查与观测
DOI:10.18307/2020.0301
分类号:
基金项目:国家第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0202)、国家自然科学基金重点项目(41831177)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项项目(A类)(XDA20020102)和中国科学院野外站联盟项目(KFJ-SW-YW038)联合资助.
The role of Tibetan Plateau lakes in surface water cycle under global changes
ZHU Liping1,2,3, PENG Ping1, ZHANG Guoqing1,2, QIAO Baojin4, LIU Chong1,3, YANG Ruimin5, WANG Junbo1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau Environment and Landform Process, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P. R. China;2.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, P. R. China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;4.School of Geoscience and Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, P. R. China;5.College of Resources and Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China
Abstract:
The Tibetan Plateau is one of the most important high altitude areas on the earth, which is sensitive to global changes. As the Asia Water Tower, the land surface water resources and their changes of the Tibetan Plateau have an important impact on the economic and social development of the plateau itself and its surrounding areas. However, under the condition of climate warming, there is less recognizance of the surface water facies shifting and their transformation for components of surface water resources, such as glaciers, lakes, rivers, precipitation and other water bodies. Lakes are the key link of the surface water facies shifting and water cycling on the Tibetan Plateau. Lake areas are sensitive to precipitation changes of the westerlies and the Indian monsoon dominant areas, but the responses of lake area and lake water storage are not always consistent in different regions and period. Lake water temperature has obvious response to climate warming, and the changes of lake water temperature and thermocline depth have obvious influence on the heat exchange of water-atmosphere, thus affecting the regional water cycle processes such as evaporation and precipitation. Due to the increase of lake water storage, the salinity of lakes in the Serling Co area has generally decreased since the 1970s. Based on the remote sensing inversion model constructed by the in-situ investigation of more than 60 lakes, it is found that the lake transparency has generally increased during 2000 and 2019. In terms of water balance monitoring in the big lakes of different supply types, the meteorological and hydrological factors affecting the lake change are quite different. In the current warm and humid climate state, lakes of the Tibet Plateau will continue to expand. In order to further understand the role of lake changes in the regional water cycle and climate change of the Tibetan Plateau, it is necessary to fully understand the variation of lake water storage and their continuous time series, to deeply understand the changes of lake physical and chemical parameters and the effect on heat exchange between lakes and atmosphere, and to obtain more comprehensive and continuous observation data from the great lake basins.
Key words:  Tibetan Plateau  lake area and water storage  water balance  physical and chemical parameters  investigation and observation
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