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引用本文:张馨月,高千红,闫金波,纪道斌,罗玉红.三峡水库近坝段水面漂浮物对水质的影响.湖泊科学,2020,32(3):609-618. DOI:10.18307/2020.0302
ZHANG Xinyue,GAO Qianhong,YAN Jinbo,JI Daobin,LUO Yuhong.Water quality affected by floating debris near the dam section of Three Gorges Reservoir. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(3):609-618. DOI:10.18307/2020.0302
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三峡水库近坝段水面漂浮物对水质的影响
张馨月1, 高千红1, 闫金波1, 纪道斌2, 罗玉红2
1.长江水利委员会长江三峡水文水资源勘测局, 宜昌 443000;2.三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002
摘要:
每年汛期与蓄水期三峡水库近坝段水域会有大量漂浮物聚集,为探索三峡水库近坝段水域(坝前及以上约12.7 km长的河段)水面漂浮物对水质的影响,2018年开展了漂浮物覆盖水体水质跟踪监测和漂浮物浸泡试验,并以2014-2018年的漂浮物产量和近坝段水域水质监测数据为基础进行了相关分析与回归分析.结果表明:漂浮物会提高坝前覆盖水体的氮类营养盐水平和有机污染物浓度,引起河湾漂浮物覆盖水域氨氮(NH3-N)浓度升高,致使氮类营养盐组成的变化和由于高锰酸盐指数/总有机碳比值(CODMn/TOC)的差异变化对水体产生有机污染.除NH3-N外,坝前水域受漂浮物影响程度大于河湾区域,漂浮物对河湾水质的影响在蓄水期更为明显,漂浮物覆盖水体垂直方向上2 m内水质因子无明显分层现象;相比综合类漂浮物,植物类漂浮物对水质的影响更迅速和明显;漂浮物仅在其覆盖的水体小范围内对氮类营养盐指标造成影响,漂浮物产量的增加会增大近坝段水域水体悬浮物、有机污染物和还原性无机物质(CODMn)浓度,形成一定的影响规律.因此,合理布置清漂作业点,高效及时地开展漂浮物清理工作,短期内优先打捞植物类漂浮物,合理实施水库调度以减少漂浮物聚集量与缩短滞留时长,加强漂浮物影响水体的水质监测对近坝区河段水环境保护意义重大.
关键词:  水质  水面漂浮物  浸泡试验  三峡水库  近坝段
DOI:10.18307/2020.0302
分类号:
基金项目:三峡集团有限公司三峡库区水面漂浮物监测项目资助.
Water quality affected by floating debris near the dam section of Three Gorges Reservoir
ZHANG Xinyue1, GAO Qianhong1, YAN Jinbo1, JI Daobin2, LUO Yuhong2
1.Three Gorges Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau, Hydrology Bureau of Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Yichang 443000, P. R. China;2.School of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China
Abstract:
During the flood season and impoundment period, there will be a large amount of floating debris gathering in the water area near the dam of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In order to explore the influence of water surface floating debris on the water quality near the dam section of the Three Gorges Reservoir (about 12.7 km long before and after the dam), floating immersion test and water quality monitoring of floating body covered water were carried out in 2018. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to analyze both the drift production of 2014-2018 and the water quality monitoring data of the near dam section. The results showed that the floating debris increased the concentration of nitrogen nutrient salts and organic pollutants in front of the dam, and led to the increase of NH3-N concentration in the bay area resulting in the change of nitrogen nutrients composition and organic pollutants pollution due to the difference of CODMn/TOC ratio. In addition to NH3-N, the influence of floating debris on the water quality in front of the dam was greater than that in the bay area. For the bay area, this influence became more obvious during the impoundment period. There was no obvious stratification of water quality factors within 2 m in the vertical direction of the water body covered by floating debris. Comparing to the comprehensive floating debris, the effect of plant floating debris on water quality was more rapid and obvious. The floating debris only affected the nitrogen nutrient index within a small range of water covered by it. The increase of floating debris production led to the concentration increase of suspended matter, organic pollutants and reducing inorganic substances (CODMn) in the water near the dam, forming a certain influence law. Therefore, it is of great significance for water environment protection to arrange the floating debris cleaning operation points reasonably, to carry out floating debris cleaning efficiently and timely, to give priority to the salvage of plant floating debris in a short period time, to implement reservoir scheduling reasonably in order to slow down the accumulation and retention time of floating debris, to enhance the monitoring about the impact of floating debris on water quality near the dam.
Key words:  Water quality  floating debris  floating immersion test  Three Gorges Reservoir  near the dam section
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