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引用本文:张文武,马琴,黎明政,张晨,高欣.三峡水库和长江中下游通江湖泊(洞庭湖和鄱阳湖)草鱼、鲢的孵化日期及早期生长特征.湖泊科学,2020,32(3):804-812. DOI:10.18307/2020.0320
ZHANG Wenwu,MA Qin,LI Mingzheng,ZHANG Chen,GAO Xin.Hatch dates and growth rates of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) juveniles in Three Gorges Reservoir, Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(3):804-812. DOI:10.18307/2020.0320
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三峡水库和长江中下游通江湖泊(洞庭湖和鄱阳湖)草鱼、鲢的孵化日期及早期生长特征
张文武1,2, 马琴3, 黎明政1, 张晨1,2, 高欣1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所水生生物多样性与保护重点实验室, 武汉 430072;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.南昌师范学院生物系, 南昌 330032
摘要:
三峡水库以及上游江段形成的河-库生态系统与长江中下游洞庭湖和鄱阳湖的江湖生态系统都是四大家鱼的重要栖息地,有相似性也有差异.2017年7-8月在三峡水库、洞庭湖和鄱阳湖利用地笼、虾笼、高网和迷魂阵采集草鱼和鲢幼鱼样本,观测耳石日轮,分析三峡水库和通江湖泊草鱼和鲢幼鱼的繁殖时间和早期生长特征及差异,探讨相应的保护措施.结果显示,三峡水库、洞庭湖和鄱阳湖采集草鱼幼鱼的孵化日期分别为4月24日-5月25日、5月21日-6月26日和5月4日-5月28日;鲢幼鱼的孵化日期分别为4月10日-6月12日、5月25日-6月19日和5月9日-6月12日.三峡水库、洞庭湖和鄱阳湖草鱼样本的体长增长率分别为1.04、1.84和1.64 mm/d,微耳石的沉积率分别为3.41、5.41和4.77 μm/d;鲢幼鱼的体长增长率分别为1.10、2.87和1.96 mm/d,微耳石沉积率分别为2.96、7.17和4.57 μm/d.洞庭湖草鱼和鲢的体长增长率和耳石沉积率均显著大于三峡水库;鄱阳湖鲢的体长增长率和耳石沉积率均显著大于三峡水库,而草鱼的体长增长率和耳石沉积率则与三峡水库没有显著差异.结果表明,三峡水库蓄水后长江中游干流草鱼和鲢的繁殖时间明显滞后;洞庭湖和鄱阳湖的草鱼和鲢幼鱼生长更快.目前,长江全面禁渔正在逐步实施,预期将对恢复鱼类资源起到重要的作用.除了全面禁渔之外,还建议保护和修复鱼类栖息地;减少江湖阻隔,灌江纳苗;增殖放流亲鱼;开展生态调度,促进鱼类繁殖.
关键词:  草鱼    耳石  早期生活史阶段  孵化时间  三峡水库  洞庭湖  鄱阳湖
DOI:10.18307/2020.0320
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0402005)、科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY120200)和三峡工程后续工作项目(2136902)联合资助.
Hatch dates and growth rates of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) juveniles in Three Gorges Reservoir, Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang
ZHANG Wenwu1,2, MA Qin3, LI Mingzheng1, ZHANG Chen1,2, GAO Xin1
1.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.Department of Biology, Nanchang Normal University, Nanchang 330032, P. R. China
Abstract:
Juveniles of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were collected in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang from July to August 2017. Lapillar otoliths were extracted from the juveniles and were used to determine their hatch date and growth rates. The results indicated that the hatch dates of grass carp and silver carp were later in Lake Dongting than in TGR and Lake Poyang. Growth rates and otolith deposition rates of grass carp (Lake Dongting:P<0.05, Lake Poyang:P>0.05) and silver carp (P<0.05) were higher in Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang than in TGR. However, the rates of the tow fishes had no significant differences between the two lakes (P>0.05). We conclude that the impoundment of TGR has delayed the spawning time of grass carp and silver carp in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The juveniles grew faster in the two lakes. However, the intensive fishing in the two lakes reduced the population abundance of grass carp and silver carp significantly. At present, the complete fishing ban is being implemented in the Yangtze Basin. This measure will play a key role in restoring fish resources. Besides fishing ban, it is also suggested to protect the habitat and spawning grounds of fishes, to increase river-lake connectivity, to release more adult fishes, and to carry out ecological regulation.
Key words:  Grass carp  silver carp  otolith  early life history stage  hatch date  Three Gorges Reservoir  Lake Dongting  Lake Poyang
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