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引用本文:谢平.我们能拯救长江中正在消逝的鲟鱼吗?.湖泊科学,2020,32(4):899-914. DOI:10.18307/2020.0401
XIE Ping.Can we save the disappearing sturgeons in the Yangtze River?. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(4):899-914. DOI:10.18307/2020.0401
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我们能拯救长江中正在消逝的鲟鱼吗?
谢平
作者单位E-mail
谢平 中国科学院水生生物研究所东湖湖泊生态系统试验站, 武汉 430072
云南大学生态与环境学院高原湖泊生态与治理研究院, 昆明 650500 
xieping@ihb.ac.cn 
摘要:
鲟鱼在地球上已生存了数亿年,体型变化小,有“活化石”之称,是鱼类中最濒危的类群之一.长江分布有3种鲟鱼:白鲟(Psephurus gladius)、中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)和达氏鲟(Acipenser dabryanus).白鲟已经功能性灭绝,中华鲟的灭绝也难以阻挡,而达氏鲟也处于极危的状态.干流大坝的建设对繁殖行为的影响是最大的原因,虽然酷鱼滥捕也起到了推波助澜的作用.之前主流专家关于大坝建设对鲟鱼的影响出现了严重误判,大坝建成后实施的救鱼措施也收效甚微,因为白鲟早已不见踪影,中华鲟的野生种群也已经到了绝灭的边缘.近年来流行水库温水下泄使中华鲟产卵推迟并导致其无法产卵的观点,但推迟并不能推论到无法产卵的结论,因此依此所建议的水库联合调度即便能够实施也未必能够奏效.中华鲟体型巨大,生命周期长,生态可塑性小,完成生活史需要跨越近海和长江的巨大空间,对产卵的条件要求苛刻,因此,如它无法自然产卵,灭绝就是迟早的事情.在过去的近40年,虽然人工放流了数百万尾中华鲟,但成效不容乐观,对野生种群的补充微乎其微.因此,对鲟鱼濒危机制(特别是自然繁殖条件的丧失)以及人工放流效果的重新评估以及对救鱼对策的重新调整已刻不容缓.
关键词:  白鲟  中华鲟  长江  功能性灭绝  人工放流  救鱼策略
DOI:10.18307/2020.0401
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院战略先导科技专项(B类)(XDB31000000)资助.
Can we save the disappearing sturgeons in the Yangtze River?
XIE Ping
Abstract:
Sturgeons have lived on the earth for hundreds of millions of years with little morphological changes, thus called as “living fossils”. They are one of the most endangered fish groups. Among the three sturgeon species in the Yangtze River, Psephurus gladius has extincted functionally, Acipenser sinensis is going to become extinct in natural environments, and Acipenser dabryanus is also critically endangered. The negative effects of spawning behaviors caused by the construction of dams in the main river is the biggest reason, followed by overfishing. There are serious misjudgments in authoritative experts about the impacts of dam construction on sturgeons, and the measures taken to save the fish after the completion of the dam have little effect, as the paddlefish has long gone, and the wild population of Chinese sturgeon is on the verge of extinction. In recent years, there is a popular viewpoint that the release of warm water from the reservoir delayed the spawning of Chinese sturgeon, consequently with their failure to lay any egg. However, postponement doesn't lead to the conclusion that it's impossible to lay eggs. Accordingly, the proposed joint reservoir operation is not effective even if it can be implemented. As the giant and long-lived Chinese sturgeons have low ecological resilience, and need to cross a vast space between coastal waters and the upper Yangtze River to complete the life story, if they can't lay eggs naturally, their extinction will happen sooner or later. During the past decades, millions of Chinese sturgeons were released artificially into the Yangtze River, but few survived with little supplement to the wild population. Therefore, it is urgent to re-evaluate the endangered mechanisms (especially the ruined conditions for natural reproduction) and the effects of artificial release and to re-adjust fish rescue strategies.
Key words:  Chinese paddlefishes  Chinese sturgeons  Yangtze River  functional extinction  artificial release  fish rescue strategies
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