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引用本文:孙悦,李再兴,张艺冉,周石磊,战江,王函,尹璐,郭朋朋.雄安新区白洋淀冰封期水体污染特征及水质评价.湖泊科学,2020,32(4):952-963. DOI:10.18307/2020.0405
SUN Yue,LI Zaixing,ZHANG Yiran,ZHOU Shilei,ZHAN Jiang,WANG Han,YIN Lu,GUO Pengpeng.Water pollution characteristics and water quality evaluation during the freezing period in Lake Baiyangdian of Xiong'an New Area. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(4):952-963. DOI:10.18307/2020.0405
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雄安新区白洋淀冰封期水体污染特征及水质评价
孙悦, 李再兴, 张艺冉, 周石磊, 战江, 王函, 尹璐, 郭朋朋
河北科技大学环境科学与工程学院, 河北省污染防治生物技术实验室, 石家庄 050018
摘要:
为明确白洋淀冬季冰封期水污染特征,于2019年1月对白洋淀原始区、旅游区、生活区、养殖区和入淀区5个特征区域25个代表性采样点进行水样采集,选取温度、溶解氧(DO)、氨氮(NH3-N)、亚硝态氮(NO2--N)、硝态氮(NO3--N)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、高锰酸盐指数作为评价因子,采用单因子评价法、综合污染指数(K)法和主成分分析法对水质进行综合评价.结果表明:白洋淀冰封期不同功能区水体温差波动较小、DO浓度变化幅度大,TN和TP浓度较高.单因子评价表明,TN参与评价时,25个采样点中,Ⅲ类水体占28%,其余为Ⅳ类、Ⅴ类和劣Ⅴ类;TP参与评价时,Ⅲ类水体占16%,其余为Ⅳ类、Ⅴ类和劣Ⅴ类,综合看,白洋淀水质整体状况较差;综合污染指数法表明,生活区水质最好,入淀区河流水质最差,其中白沟引河、府河和瀑河3条入淀口河流水质状况最差,为重度污染,主要污染物为TN、TP;主成分分析法表明,入淀区的6条河流彼此间偏差较大,所受污染的影响因子存在较大差异,与主成分1和主成分2高度相关的理化指标是TN、TP.通过3种评价方法定性定量的有机结合,得出白洋淀冬季冰封期水质限制因子为TN、TP且该时期水体污染较严重,冰封期作为湖泊水体的重要时期,探明污染源并治理可显著改善湖泊水质,不仅为白洋淀水体治理提供最佳时机,也为治理和修复淀区水体污染提供指导意义.
关键词:  白洋淀  冰封期  水污染特征  单因子评价法  综合污染指数(K)法  主成分分析法
DOI:10.18307/2020.0405
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51909056)、河北省研究生创新项目(CXZZSS2019080,CXZZSS2018084)和河北科技大学引进人才科研启动基金项目(1181278)联合资助.
Water pollution characteristics and water quality evaluation during the freezing period in Lake Baiyangdian of Xiong'an New Area
SUN Yue, LI Zaixing, ZHANG Yiran, ZHOU Shilei, ZHAN Jiang, WANG Han, YIN Lu, GUO Pengpeng
Pollution Prevention Biotechnology Laboratory of Hebei Province, School of Environmental Science and Enginnering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, P. R. China
Abstract:
Twenty-five water sampling sites in Lake Baiyangdian were selected to investigate the characteristics of water quality in January 2019, including primitive area, tourist rea, living area, aquaculture area and enter area. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrous oxide nitrogen (NO2--N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), permanganate index were used as factors to evaluate water quality based on the single factor evaluation method, comprehensive pollution index (K) method and principal component analysis method, respectively. The results indicated that temperature of the lake had a minor fluctuation, the DO exhibited a huge variation, TN and TP presented high concentrations during the freezing period in Lake Baiyangdian. The single factor evaluation showed that when TN was used for evaluation, Class Ⅲ water bodies accounted for 28%, and the rest were Class Ⅳ, Class Ⅴ and lower Ⅴ among the 25 sampling points. When TP was used, Class Ⅲ water bodies accounted for 16%, and the rest were IV, Class V and lower V. Overall, the quality of Lake Baiyangdian water was relatively poor. The comprehensive pollution index method showed that water quality in the living area was better, while the enter area was worse. The water quality of Baigou River, Fuhe River and Puhe River were the worst among all sampling sites, which belonged to heavy pollution rivers involved to TN and TP. The principal component analysis indicated that the six rivers of the sedimentation area had large deviations in water quality and pollution influencing factors. TN and TP were highly correlated with PCA1 and PCA2 in the physical and chemical indicators. Overall, the evaluation combined qualitative and quantitative methods showed that the TN and TP were the main limiting factor in freezing period of Lake Baiyangdian. From all the results, the freezing period is important for lake water bodies, probing the source of pollution and controlling it can significantly improve the water quality of the lake. The series of researches not only offers the best opportunity for the treatment of water, but also provides guidance for the treatment and restoration of water pollution in Lake Baiyangdian.
Key words:  Lake Baiyangdian  freezing period  pollution characteristics  single factor evaluation method  comprehensive pollution index (K) method  principal component analysis method
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