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引用本文:万宏滨,周娟,罗端,杨浩,黄昌春,黄涛.长江中游湖泊表层沉积物多环芳烃的分布、来源特征及其生态风险评价.湖泊科学,2020,32(6):1632-1645. DOI:10.18307/2020.0606
WAN Hongbin,ZHOU Juan,LUO Duan,YANG Hao,HUANG Changchun,HUANG Tao.Distribution,source characteristics and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of lakes along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(6):1632-1645. DOI:10.18307/2020.0606
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长江中游湖泊表层沉积物多环芳烃的分布、来源特征及其生态风险评价
万宏滨1,2,3, 周娟1, 罗端1, 杨浩1, 黄昌春1,2,3, 黄涛1,2,3
1.南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023;2.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心, 南京 210023;3.江苏省物质循环与污染控制重点实验室, 南京 210023
摘要:
为明确长江中游地区湖泊沉积物中多环芳烃(PAHs)的分布特征、来源及其生态风险,于2018年7月采集了该地区12个湖泊的表层沉积物样品.采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)测定了沉积物中16种PAHs的含量.结果表明:12个湖泊沉积物中均检测出16种优控PAHs,PAHs的总含量在572.7~1766.2 ng/g (dw)之间(均值为976.5±285.0 ng/g (dw)).武汉市东湖沉积物中PAHs含量最高,达到1634.8±111.4 ng/g (dw).与国内外其他地区湖泊沉积物相比,长江中游地区湖泊沉积物中PAHs含量高于国内偏远地区的抚仙湖、青海湖及博斯腾湖,低于东部地区的巢湖、太湖及美国经济工业发达地区的湖泊.根据单体PAH的聚类分析结果,12个湖泊可以分成3种类型,类型1主要以低环为主,占比为64.04%±7.02%,类型2低环和中高环分布相对平均,分别为50.76%±5.17%和49.24%±5.17%,类型3低、中、高环分布相对平均,占比分别为35.35%±3.56%、26.17%±0.45%和38.48%±3.84%.综合该区域PAHs的分布特征及异构体比值法与主成分分析法的结果表明,类型1湖泊沉积物中PAHs主要来源为煤炭、木材等生物质的燃烧源;类型2和类型3湖泊沉积物中PAHs主要来源为煤炭、木材等生物质的低温燃烧以及机动车等燃烧汽油、柴油的尾气排放和工业炼焦等化石燃料的高温燃烧源.沉积物中PAHs与总有机碳(TOC)之间显著的相关性表明,沉积物中TOC含量是影响长江中游湖泊沉积物中PAHs归趋分布的主要因素.长江中游流域湖泊沉积物中PAHs的RQNCs值均小于800,且RQMPCs值大于1的风险商值法生态风险评价结果表明,长江中游流域湖泊表层沉积物中PAHs整体呈中等风险水平.
关键词:  多环芳烃  湖泊  表层沉积物  来源特征  长江  生态风险评价
DOI:10.18307/2020.0606
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41673108,41773097)、江苏省高校自然科学基金项目(16KJD170001)和江苏高校“青蓝工程”优秀青年骨干教师项目联合资助.
Distribution,source characteristics and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of lakes along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River
WAN Hongbin1,2,3, ZHOU Juan1, LUO Duan1, YANG Hao1, HUANG Changchun1,2,3, HUANG Tao1,2,3
1.College of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China;2.Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China;3.Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China
Abstract:
In order to study the distribution characteristics, sources and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of lakes along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, surface sediments were collected from 12 lakes in the region in July 2018. The contents of 16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated that 16 kinds of priority PAHs were all detected in these lake sediments. The contents of total PAHs were between 572.7-1766.2 ng/g(dw)(with the mean value of 976.5±285.0 ng/g(dw)). The highest content of PAHs in the sediments of Wuhan Lake East was 1634.8±111.4 ng/g (dw). Compared with lake sediments in other domestic and oversea areas, the PAHs content in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River was higher than that of Lake Fuxian, Lake Qinghai and Lake Bosten in remote areas of China, but lower than that of Lake Chaohu and Lake Taihu in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the economically and industrially developed areas in the United States. According to the results of single PAH clustering analysis, 12 lakes can be divided into three types. Type 1 was mainly occupied by low ring of 64.04%±7.02%. Type 2 was mainly equivalent occupied by low ring and middle ring, which accounting for 50.76%±5.17% and 49.24%±5.17%, respectively. Type 3 was homogeneous occupied by different rings, which accounting for 35.35%±3.56%, 26.17%±0.45%, and 38.48%±3.84% from low ring to high ring. According to the distribution characteristics of PAHs in this area and the results of isomer ratio method and principal component analysis, the main source of PAHs in type 1 lake sediments is the mixed source of biomass combustion and petroleum, such as coal and wood. The main sources of PAHs in lake sediments of type 2 and type 3 are low-temperature combustion of biomass such as coal and wood, exhaust emissions from motor vehicles burning gasoline and diesel, and high-temperature combustion of fossil fuels such as industrial coking. The significant correlation between PAHs and total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments indicates that, the content of TOC in the sediments is the key factor affecting the distribution of PAHs in the lake sediments in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The risk assessment results of the risk quotient method, that the RQNCs of PAHs in lake sediments in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River are all less than 800, and the RQMPCs are greater than 1, indicating that the PAHs in the lake sediments along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River presents a moderate risk level.
Key words:  PAHs  lakes  surface sediments  source characteristics  Yangtze River  ecological risk assessment
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