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引用本文:杨海强,潘保柱,朱朋辉,蒋万祥,蒋小明,侯易明.渭河干流和秦岭北麓典型支流底栖动物群落结构及水质生物评价.湖泊科学,2020,32(6):1793-1805. DOI:10.18307/2020.0619
YANG Haiqiang,PAN Baozhu,ZHU Penghui,JIANG Wanxiang,JIANG Xiaoming,HOU Yiming.Structure of macroinvertebrate communities and bioassessment of water quality in the Weihe River mainstream and its typical tributaries from the northern Qinling Mountains. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(6):1793-1805. DOI:10.18307/2020.0619
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渭河干流和秦岭北麓典型支流底栖动物群落结构及水质生物评价
杨海强, 潘保柱, 朱朋辉, 蒋万祥, 蒋小明, 侯易明
西安理工大学西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安 710048
摘要:
为摸清渭河干流及源于秦岭北麓典型支流的大型底栖动物群落特征,本研究于2017年10月和2018年5月对渭河干流及秦岭北麓5条典型支流共40个样点的大型底栖动物进行调查,并利用Margalef丰富度指数和生物指数BI生物指数对河流水质进行评价.共鉴定大型底栖动物210种,属于5门8纲75科187属.水生昆虫为优势类群,其物种数占总物种数的89.0%,且四节蜉属一种(Baetis sp.)作为绝对优势的物种出现在所有调查河流中.源于秦岭北麓的支流石头河底栖动物总密度最高(616.3 ind./m2),总生物量最大(5.265 g/m2);而渭河干流底栖动物总密度最低(125.6 ind./m2),总生物量最小(0.289 g/m2).水质较好的秦岭北麓典型支流底栖动物的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Margalef丰富度指数显著高于渭河干流,而Pielou均匀度指数在干支流间的差异性不大.通过Pearson相关分析和多元逐步回归分析得出,淤泥型底质、电导率、pH和硝酸盐氮是影响调查河流底栖动物群落特征的主导因子.丰富度指数法和生物指数法水质评价结果分别显示,渭河干流有73.3%和80.0%的采样点呈中度-重度污染状态,秦岭北麓典型支流有80.0%和68.0%的采样点呈无污染-轻度污染状态.本研究可为渭河流域生态管理与保护提供基础的数据支撑.
关键词:  大型底栖动物  群落结构  环境因子  水质评价  渭河流域  秦岭
DOI:10.18307/2020.0619
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51939009)和陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(2019JM-153)联合资助.
Structure of macroinvertebrate communities and bioassessment of water quality in the Weihe River mainstream and its typical tributaries from the northern Qinling Mountains
YANG Haiqiang, PAN Baozhu, ZHU Penghui, JIANG Wanxiang, JIANG Xiaoming, HOU Yiming
State Key Laboratory of Ecological Water Conservancy in the Northwest Arid Area, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, P. R. China
Abstract:
For exploring the macroinvertebrate community characteristics of the Weihe River mainstream and its typical tributaries originating from the northern Qinling Mountains, investigation of water environment and macroinvertebrates was conducted in 40 sampling sites in October 2017 and May 2018. Furthermore, Margalef richness and biological index (BI) biological indices were used to assess the water quality of studied rivers. Altogether 210 macroinvertebrates species were identified, belonging to 187 genera, 75 families, 8 classes and 5 phyla. Aquatic insects were the dominant group, accounting for 89.0% of the total species number, and the Baetis sp. was the dominant species in all studied rivers. The tributary Shitou River, had the highest values of total density(616.3 ind./m2), and the highest total biomass(5.265 g/m2). Whereas the total density (125.6 ind./m2) and total biomass (0.289 g/m2) of macroinvertebrates were both lowest in the Weihe River mainstream. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index(H')and Margalef richness index(R)of five typical tributaries were characterized by good water quality and significantly higher than those of the Weihe River mainstream, whereas the Pielou evenness index(J)showed insignificant difference between mainstream and tributaries. Pearson correlation analysis and the multiple linear regression analysis showed that “Silt plus clay” type substrate, conductivity, pH and nitrate nitrogen were the primary environment factors effecting the macroinvertebrate community characteristics in studied rivers. According to the water quality evaluation results of the richness index and the BI method, 73.3% and 80.0% of the mainstream sites were identified as moderately to heavily polluted, but 80.0% and 68.0% of tributary sites were identified as non-polluted to slightly polluted. This study can provide basic data supports for ecological management and protection in the Weihe River Basin.
Key words:  Macroinvertebrate  community structure  environmental factors  water quality evaluation  Weihe River Basin  Qinling Mountain
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