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引用本文:李建,尹炜,贾海燕,辛小康,王超.汉江中下游水华防控生态调度研究.湖泊科学,2022,34(3):740-751. DOI:10.18307/2022.0304
Li Jian,Yin Wei,Jia Haiyan,Xin Xiaokang,Wang Chao.Study on the ecological regulation of algal bloom control in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(3):740-751. DOI:10.18307/2022.0304
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汉江中下游水华防控生态调度研究
李建1,2, 尹炜1,2, 贾海燕1,2, 辛小康1,2, 王超1,2
1.长江水资源保护科学研究所, 武汉 430010;2.长江水利委员会湖库水源地面源污染生态调控重点实验室, 武汉 430051
摘要:
汉江中下游1992—2021年冬春季节共计暴发了十余次大规模水华事件,水生态安全和饮用水安全频繁受到威胁.基于历次水华发生情况,分析总结了汉江中下游水华特征和暴发成因,根据水华与水文过程响应关系研究提出了抑制水华的关键指标及其调控阈值,构建了汉江中下游水利工程联合生态调度方案,明确了抑制水华的生态调度方式和调度持续时间,并结合2021年1月下旬抑制水华生态调度实践分析了调度效果.研究表明:(1)汉江中下游水华暴发时间主要集中在1—3月份,兴隆水库修建后水华发生河段已经从潜江以下向上游扩展至兴隆库区;(2)发生水华年份汉江下游流量明显小于不发生水华年份,兴隆库区河段和仙桃自然河段抑制水华的临界流速(流量)存在差异,分别为0.20 m/s (1160 m3/s)和0.67 m/s (1040~1200 m3/s);(3)丹江口水库加大下泄流量和兴隆水库水位波动式调节是抑制水华的关键调度方式,联合生态调度适合以5 d为一个调度周期.
关键词:  汉江|水华|暴发成因|水文阈值|生态调度
DOI:10.18307/2022.0304
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(U2040210)和国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0404502)联合资助.
Study on the ecological regulation of algal bloom control in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River
Li Jian1,2, Yin Wei1,2, Jia Haiyan1,2, Xin Xiaokang1,2, Wang Chao1,2
1.Changjiang Water Resources Protection Institute, Wuhan 430010, P. R. China;2.Key Laboratory of Ecological Regulation of Non-point Source Pollution in Lake and Reservoir Water Sources, Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Wuhan 430051, P. R. China
Abstract:
A total of more than ten large-scale algal blooms occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River during the winter and spring from 1992 to 2021, and the water ecological safety and drinking water safety were frequently threatened. Based on previous occurrences of algal blooms, the characteristics of algal blooms in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River and the causes of the outbreaks were analyzed and summarized. According to the response relationship between algal bloom and hydrological processes, the key indicators and their thresholds for algal bloom control were proposed. A joint ecological regulation scheme for water conservancy projects in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River was developed, and the ecological regulation mode and duration to suppress algal blooms were clarified. The control effect was analyzed based on the practice of ecological regulation for suppressing algal bloom in late January 2021. Studies have shown that the algal bloom events in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River is mainly occurred from January to March. After the construction of the Xinglong Reservoir, the section where algal blooms occurred has expanded from below the Qianjiang River section to the upper reaches of the Xinglong Reservoir area. As to the average river flow, water level and velocity in years with algal blooms are significantly lower than those in years without algal blooms, and there are differences in the threshold velocity (flow) in the Xinglong Reservoir area and Xiantao natural reach, the threshold levels are 0.20 m/s (1160 m3/s) and 0.67 m/s (1040-1200 m3/s), respectively. Finally, increasing release flow from the Danjiangkou Reservoir and fluctuating water levels of the Xinglong Reservoir are the key regulating method for algal bloom control, and the regulation duration is suitable for a period of 5 days.
Key words:  Hanjiang River|algal blooms|cause of outbreak|hydrological thresholds|ecological regulation
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