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引用本文:李晓琳,帅永芳,张翼,郑毅,危锋,韦晓雪.基于GIS的洱海流域氮素时空分异特征及源结构解析.湖泊科学,2022,34(3):816-827. DOI:10.18307/2022.0309
Li Xiaolin,Shuai Yongfang,Zhang Yi,Zheng Yi,Wei Feng,Wei Xiaoxue.GIS-based analysis on the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of nitrogen and its sources in Lake Erhai basin. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(3):816-827. DOI:10.18307/2022.0309
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基于GIS的洱海流域氮素时空分异特征及源结构解析
李晓琳1, 帅永芳1, 张翼2, 郑毅1,3, 危锋1, 韦晓雪1
1.西南林业大学生态与环境学院, 昆明 650224;2.云南省水文水资源局大理分局, 大理 671000;3.云南开放大学, 昆明 650500
摘要:
氮是造成洱海水体富营养化的重要驱动因子,明晰流域内农村及城镇的氮素时空分布特征,对洱海水环境保护有着重要意义.本文利用输出系数模型计算洱海流域的总氮污染负荷及其组成结构;结合GIS空间分析功能,细化26个子流域总氮污染负荷及来源.研究结果表明:1998、2005、2010和2016年的洱海流域总氮污染负荷分别为2442.43、2573.10、2606.28和2389.10 t.点源污染逐年增加,面源污染在逐年减少,但面源污染依然为主要污染源.从污染组成结构上看,化肥污染、畜禽养殖和农村生活是洱海流域氮污染负荷的主要来源,分别占总污染负荷量的35%、24%和17%.2016年洱海流域单位面积负荷量主要集中在1000~1500 kg/km2,以中和溪(1857 kg/km2)、桃梅溪(1582 kg/km2)、白石溪(1541 kg/km2)、罗时江(1088 kg/km2)和波罗江(1050 kg/km2)子流域负荷较高.未来可通过生活污水集中处理,提高污水处理率;畜禽养殖规模化,加强粪便处理技术;优化化肥和有机肥结构等措施减少总氮入湖负荷,控制洱海水体富营养化.
关键词:  洱海流域|氮素|时空分布|源结构解析|GIS
DOI:10.18307/2022.0309
分类号:
基金项目:西南林业大学科研启动基金项目(112115)和国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200207)联合资助.
GIS-based analysis on the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of nitrogen and its sources in Lake Erhai basin
Li Xiaolin1, Shuai Yongfang1, Zhang Yi2, Zheng Yi1,3, Wei Feng1, Wei Xiaoxue1
1.College of Ecology and Environment, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, P. R. China;2.Dali Branch of Yunnan Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau, Dali 671000, P. R. China;3.Yunnan Open University, Kunming 650500, P. R. China
Abstract:
Nitrogen is the main driving factor for the eutrophication of Lake Erhai. Thus, it is significant to clarify the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of nitrogen in rural and urban areas of the watershed. In this paper, an output coefficient model was applied to quantify nitrogen pollution loading and identify the main sources of nitrogen from urban and rural area during 1998-2016. With the help of spatial analysis function of GIS, the river export of nitrogen to Lake Erhai from sub-basins was quantified. The results showed that the total nitrogen (TN) pollution loading in 1998, 2005, 2010 and 2016 was 2442.43, 2573.10, 2606.28 and 2389.10 t, respectively. Point pollution was increasing while non-point source pollution showed a downward trend over time, whereas non-point pollution was still the main source of TN. From the perspective of sources retrieval, the fertilizer input, livestock and poultry breeding and rural population were the main sources in the Lake Erhai basin, accounting for 35%, 24% and 17% of the TN loading, respectively. In 2016, the load per unit area was mainly on 1000-1500 kg/km2, with higher loads in the Zhonghexi (1857 kg/km2), Taomeixi (1582 kg/km2), Baishixi (1541 kg/km2), Luoshijiang (1088 kg/km2) and Boluojiang (1050 kg/km2) sub-basins. In order to reduce the nitrogen losses to the water bodies and mitigate eutrophication status of Lake Erhai, several actions could be favorably suggested in the future:the sewage treatment rate could be improved through building more centralized treatments of domestic sewage; animal manure treatment technology could be improved to increase the nitrogen use efficiency in the animal production process; and finally, synthetic fertilizer and animal manure could be used more rationally.
Key words:  Lake Erhai basin|nitrogen|temporal and spatial variation characteristics|structure of sources|GIS
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