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引用本文:梁利权,郭春霞,陈小华,李金文,陈诚,杨林沛,沈根祥.水产养殖清塘过程污染排放特征及对周边水体影响:以太湖下游典型鱼类集约化养殖区为例.湖泊科学,2023,35(1):181-191. DOI:10.18307/2023.0112
Liang Liquan,Guo Chunxia,Chen Xiaohua,Li Jinwen,Chen Cheng,Yang Linpei,Shen Genxiang.Characteristics of pollution discharges during pond cleaning in typical fish ponds in Taihu Basin and its impacts on water environment. J. Lake Sci.2023,35(1):181-191. DOI:10.18307/2023.0112
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水产养殖清塘过程污染排放特征及对周边水体影响:以太湖下游典型鱼类集约化养殖区为例
梁利权1,2, 郭春霞2, 陈小华2, 李金文2, 陈诚2, 杨林沛2, 沈根祥1,2
1.华东理工大学资源与环境工程学院, 上海 200237;2.上海市环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护新型污染物环境健康影响评价重点实验室, 上海 200233
摘要:
水产养殖清塘过程中的排水是造成周边水环境污染的重要环节,但对此环节中污染物排放特征和影响程度的研究仍相对不足。为有效减少清塘过程的排水对环境的污染,推进水产养殖业绿色发展,本研究选取典型鱼类集约化养殖区,通过高频采样和监测,分析了阶段式排水时混养鱼塘尾水中的悬浮物、有机物和营养盐等指标的浓度变化,明确污染物的排放特征,同时分析受纳水体不同断面的水质变化情况。研究结果表明:总悬浮物浓度(TSS)、高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)、总磷(TP)、总氮(TN)和氨氮(NH3-N)浓度随着持续排水呈上升趋势,在排水末期污染物浓度均快速上升,磷酸盐磷(PO43--P)浓度仅在排水末期骤升,硝态氮(NO3--N)浓度随排水持续下降,亚硝态氮(NO2--N)浓度随排水先上升后下降;根据《淡水池塘养殖水排放要求》二级标准,排水末期TN、TP、TSS浓度超标倍数分别达4.70、6.66、206.90;尾水流量与河流量约以1/200的比例排入河道后,仅TSS、CODMn、TN和NH3-N对距排水口400 m内的河道水质产生显著性影响,影响距离为TN>TSS = NH3-N>CODMn。因此,禁止水产养殖尾水未经处理直接排放,特别是池塘最后20~30 cm水深的尾水未经处理直接排入附近河道,可有效限制水产养殖尾水污染物负荷集中输出。
关键词:  水产养殖  清塘  排水  悬浮固体  富营养化  太湖流域
DOI:10.18307/2023.0112
分类号:
基金项目:水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07207002)、上海市生态环境局沪环科[2021]第4号和上海市农业农村委沪农科推字(2021)第3-1号项目联合资助。
Characteristics of pollution discharges during pond cleaning in typical fish ponds in Taihu Basin and its impacts on water environment
Liang Liquan1,2, Guo Chunxia2, Chen Xiaohua2, Li Jinwen2, Chen Cheng2, Yang Linpei2, Shen Genxiang1,2
1.School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, P. R. China;2.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Health Impact of Emerging Contaminants, Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, P. R. China
Abstract:
The drainage process during aquaculture pond cleaning would cause non negligible pollution of surrounding water environment, but there haven't been sufficient research on the characteristics of pollutant discharges and the impact degrees of this process. To effectively mitigate the environmental pollution from the drainage of pond cleaning process and promote the green development of aquaculture industry, in this study, we selected a typical intensive fish aquaculture area as the study object. Through high frequency sampling, we analyzed the changes of suspended matters, organic matters and nutrients concentrations in the tailwater of mixed fishponds to understand the discharge characteristics of pollutants. The changes of water quality in different sections of the receiving water were analyzed as well. According to our results, the concentrations of total suspended solids concentration (TSS), CODMn, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) all exhibited an increasing trend with the drainage and increased rapidly at the end of the drainage event. The concentration of phosphate (PO3-4-P) increased rapidly only at the end of the drainage event, while the concentration of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) decreased continuously during the whole drainage event. According to the secondary standard of "Freshwater Pond Culture Water Discharge Requirements", the exceedance multiples of TN, TP and TSS at the end of discharge reached 4.70, 6.66 and 206.90, respectively. After the tailwater flow discharged into the external river at a ratio of about 1/200 to the river volume, within 400 m from the outlet, only TSS, CODMn, TN and NH3-N would significantly affect the river water quality, and the influencing distance exhibited a trend of TN>TSS=NH3-N>CODMn. Therefore, prohibiting direct discharge of aquaculture tailwater into the nearby river without treatment, especially the tailwater of the last 20-30 cm water depth of the pond, can effectively limit the output loads of the concentrated pollutants in aquaculture tailwater.
Key words:  Aquaculture  pond cleaning  drainage  suspended solid  eutrophication  Taihu Basin
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